The Department of Mathematical Statistics was established in 1952 at the Faculty of Agriculture of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University. In 1955 the Council of Ministers established the Higher School of Agriculture, which was formed from the Faculty of Agriculture, Veterinary and Zootechnics, separated from the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University. The Department of Mathematical Statistics, as a unit of the Faculty of Agriculture, was included in the organisational structures of the University of Agriculture - now the University of Life Sciences.

Over the years the name, status, structure and personnel of the Department changed. In 1970 the Chair was transferred to the newly established Faculty of Agricultural Technology and changed its name to the Chair of Mathematics Applications.

In 1973, three departments and a laboratory were established within the Department: Department of Mathematical Statistics, Department of Experimental Theory and Biometry (from 1.10.2020 the Laboratory), Department of Mathematics (from 2000 to 2008 the Laboratory ) and the Numerical Methods Laboratory.

In 1979 the Department was renamed the Institute of Applications of Mathematics, retaining the existing departments and laboratories.

In 1982, the Numerical Methods Laboratory was elevated to the rank of Department of the same name and in 1984 it was transformed into the Centre of Computer Science, which in 1999 became a non-departmental unit.

In 1993, the Department of Computer Science Didactics was set up, which was renamed the Department of Computer Science a year later. In this structure the Institute existed until the end of August 2000. Since 1 September 2000 it was renamed to the Department of Mathematics Applications, and on 1 April 2008 its name was changed again to the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Applications.

Currently, the Department consists of the Department of Mathematical Statistics, the Laboratory of Experimental Theory and Biometry, the Department of Mathematics and the Department of Computer Science.

The creator and long-time head of the Department was Prof. Dr. Wiktor Oktaba (until 1990), a statistician who set the direction of research and development of the Department. For the next 10 years the Chair was headed by Prof. Tadeusz Przybysz, PhD, then in the years 2000-2011 it was headed by Prof. Mirosława Wesołowska-Janczarek, PhD, and from 2011 to 2020 it was headed by Izabela Kuna-Broniowska, PhD. Currently, the Chair is headed by Agnieszka Kubik-Komar, PhD, Professor of the University.

People with a degree in mathematics, as well as physics or computer science were usually employed to work at the Department. In the first years of the Department's existence, only three people were employed. In the following years the number of faculty members increased, which was connected in particular with the University's development, the establishment of new faculties, majors and specialisations, and therefore with the increase in the number of students, but also with the introduction of new subjects, particularly related to the development of computer science.

The maximum period of employment was 1982-1983, when fifty-three people worked, thirty of whom were employees of the Computer Science Centre. At present, twenty-two people work at the Department of Applications of Mathematics and Computer Science, including: one titular professor, six post-doctoral fellows at the position of university professor, twelve PhDs, one assistant and two technical staff.